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I2M Associates, LLC offers experienced engineers, geologists, hydrogeologists, and other scientists with many years in environmental assessments, including remediation management, mineral exploration and mining, project management, and mergers and acquisitions. Related areas of expertise include forensic and feasibility studies in the environmental and mining industries, and environmental site assessments, due diligence assessments, and impact assessments in addition to brownfield redevelopment and management (as well as grant application assistance) in the U.S, and for state and the U.S. governments, and the legal community around the U.S.

Case Histories

Contact I2M Associates, LLC

1810 Elmen Street, Houston, Texas 77019

Phone: 713.807.0021

Mobile: 713.248.1708

Fax: 713.807.0985

Summary of Projects

Summary of Projects 2017-11-03T10:21:13+00:00

Over the years, I2M Associates personnel have been involved in hundreds of geological and engineering projects on a range of mining-related and environmental-related subjects. Many of the projects have been the basis for papers and/or presentations by Mr. Bost and Mr. Campbell, as as well by the other I2M Associates. If not summarized below, many project case histories have been reflected in the publications listed in each of the Principals’ CVs’, e.g., see the list of links presented near the bottom of the I2M Contacts.

I2M Management Skills

The combined years of professional experience of the two senior principals of I2M Associates, LLC (Mr. Bost and Mr. Campbell) amount to some 90 years, of which some 50 years were devoted to corporate management of technical projects for large consulting environmental and engineering companies and for top Fortune 100 corporations.

In addition to achieving outstanding technical skills while managing the staffs of their groups as indicated by the number of awards each has received over the years, both Mr. Bost and Mr. Campbell have dealt with the typical range of management functions. These include setting up personnel recruiting standards and procedures for implementation by human resources (HR) personnel, to providing oversight for health and safety programs within their companies, and for the line responsibility of the performance of their groups measured by billable hours and for budget projections (within their consulting companies) or by savings realized and budget projections and monitoring for expansion and for contraction of group functions (within their company activities), and for payroll, and year-end bonus structures and reviews, among other financial operations.

Both Principals have considerable experience in corporate-risk assessment, litigation, and in mergers and acquisitions. Both are experienced expert witnesses and expert consultants with well over 200 cases in environmental, mining, and associated matters for many state and federal courts in numerous states. This included working with the FBI to flush out an organized system of gold theft by employees of a mining operation that supported a major illegal drug distribution activity in eastern Nevada.

These functions have also included the more mundane activities of dealing with difficult employees, encouraging minority hiring practices, preparing and enforcing company policies, while creating a company culture of rewarding outstanding commitment and minimizing personnel discourse.

Both Mr. Bost and Mr. Campbell also continue to provide technical leadership by presenting papers and reports for the benefit of the respective environmental and mining-related fields today (more).

Most of the above management and technical activities, and more, will be called upon to handle the expansion of I2M via mergers and acquisitions, as well as through new corporate projects and ventures. Through their extensive network of associates built up over the years, the I2M Principals, supported by their seasoned staff and Associates, are in the right environment based on their respective experiences to accomplish their goals of providing quality services to clients.

Below is a summary of some of the more recent I2M projects that are not presently confidential or have been briefly described with generic affiliations:

  • NQ Minerals plc is an Australian-based precious- and base-metal mineral exploration and mining company. I2M Associates, LLC personnel have been engaged to provide an independent assessment of the Ukalunda and Square Post projects as the programs develops (more). The properties are located in NE Queensland.
  • Confidential Client: I2M Associates personnel conducted a preliminary, independent review in 2014 of available documents regarding the resources of a base-metal and gold-mining property located in Tasmania, along with a review of the associated processing plant requirements and prevalent environmental conditions for the purpose of possible acquisition and operation.
  • Confidential Client: I2M conducted a series of independent evaluations in 2013 on the economic potential of a series of gold and base-metal properties located NW of Hanoi, Vietnam for a London-based mining company. This included discussions with a local mining company regarding local processing plant and associated environmental conditions.
  • Queensland, AustraliaConfidential Client: I2M Associates was engaged by an Ohio attorney group to conduct Phase I – Phase II investigations on a warehouse complex located next to an abandoned battery manufacturing property in central Ohio. A number of small-diameter holes were drilled through the concrete foundation of the large building and along the boundary with the adjacent property. Significant lead and cadmium were reported in the groundwater samples. I2M recommended further investigations with regular groundwater monitoring. The project was handed off to Bennett and Williams, Inc in Columbus, Ohio to provide the client with local support should litigation be pursued against the current property owners.
  • InterGroup Mining: I2M conducted a review of the geophysical and drilling results of the recently completed 2013 exploration program on the Brilliant Brumby project west of Charters Towers, Queensland. The program results have been summarized in a video produced by the company. The results of the I2M review are mentioned beginning 4 mins 10 seconds into the video (more). The client is moving forward in 2014 on this project (more).
  • U.S. Government: I2M recently completed a contract to conduct an investigation of the potential impact of contaminants on ground water around a government facility. This involved reviewing documents and conducting research to assess the government’s activities; the effort was led by I2M’s Chief Geologist/Hydrogeologist, Michael D. Campbell, P.G., P.H. Released to general public 2015 (more).
  • Wishbone Gold plc: I2M recently provided independent technical support to Wishbone Gold regarding its recent press releases to the London AIM Stock Exchange for new information released on their mineral exploration projects located in northeast Queensland, Australia. This project was led by I2M’s Chief Geologist, Michael D. Campbell., P.G., P.H. I2M continues to provide independent assessments for the company. See example: (here) and (here).
  • PERC Subsidiary: I2M just completed a series of hydrogeological investigations after Phase II drilling and sampling activities on the State Superfund project located near Tacoma, Washington. The project is managed by Jeff King, CEO of PERC, with technical support provided by Michael D. Campbell, I2M’s Chief Geologist/Hydrogeologist. See remote monitoring program (here) and associated 3-point modeling of two potentiometric surfaces of the two aquifers.
  • Confidential Client: I2M recently completed a due-diligence evaluation for a confidential overseas client regarding a potential merger with a uranium company in Australia. Mr. Campbell led the team in an investigation of drilling data, projected uranium resources, potential in situ development, associated processing plans, and project economics.
  • Confidential Client: I2M Associates was engaged by a New York attorney group to investigate the possible source of the reported lead in the drinking water at a residence located in a suburban area. Sampling of the drinking water from water wells of surrounding homes and of the water well of the subject house and of the various outlets within the subject house. Significant lead was reported only from outlets in the upper floor within the house. The presence was traced to lead solder being used in the house during construction five years earlier. Litigation was pursued and settled quickly.
  • Strategic Minerals, plc: I2M provided personnel in assisting the London-based company in developing the mining development license application (MDL) for the Iron Glen project in Northeast Queensland. The project is moving into the advanced drilling phase after discovering encouraging mineralization of magnetite, silver, lead, and other metals in previous drilling.
  • Confidential Client: Another Australian Mining Company engaged I2M Associates personnel to assess a number of mineral tenements (including gold, silver, and other metals) in northeast Queensland regarding the nature of mineralization, previous activities, environmental issues surrounding the project, and likely path for development, all in terms of RI 43-101 and CPR requirements in anticipation of listings on Australian, Canadian and/or London Stock Exchanges.
  • PERC: Engaged to conduct hydrogeological investigations on the shallow ground water in a State Superfund RI/FS in the State of Washington. Phase I drilling and installation of monitoring wells along with soil sampling were conducted in early 2010 and 2011 after Work Plans and QAPPs were approved. Work continues in 2012 with installing additional wells and a monitoring system to continuously record subsurface pressure differences affecting water-level measurements caused by tidal fluctuations, rainfall events, and local surface traffic in and around the plant site.
  • Confidential Client: Invited to provide personnel to assess Morocco’s numerous mining properties for presentation of the current exploration results and status of environmental regulations to selected U.S. and international mining companies for possible joint-ventures with the Moroccan Government.
  • Confidential Client: Provided senior personnel to a major international environmental consulting firm regarding the merger and acquisition by a major Canadian firm to perform investigations concerning the environmental due diligence of the target company located in the U.S.
  • Confidential Client: Invited to provide input on a Houston-area freeway construction project regarding the siting of a highway through an area of a major Superfund site and on the potential impact to the shallow and intermediate ground water of driving bridge supports into zones of known subsurface contamination.
  • Internal Project: Personnel conducted a comprehensive assessment of local and national news media coverage of uranium exploration and nuclear power development in the U.S. by critiquing such media coverage for possible bias and by providing counter arguments to biased news media in the form of reviews prepared by I2M Associates personnel (more).
  • Confidential Client: A Canadian-Australian Mining Company engaged I2M Associates personnel to assess a large mineral concession in Australia regarding the nature of mineralization, previous activities, environmental issues surrounding the project, and likely path for development through mining operations, all in terms of 43-101 requirements in anticipation of possible listings on Australian, Canadian and/or London Stock Exchanges.
  • Confidential Client: A Major Mining Company engaged I2M Associates personnel to assess uranium operations, associated resource base, exploration results, and current environmental permitting status in context with present and future economics of the operations.
  • Internal Project: Conducted an assessment of historical trends, activities of the nuclear power industry, and the projected need for electricity generated by nuclear power, and other factors on the likely long-term yellow cake price through 2016.
  • Confidential Client: A Concerned Family engaged I2M Associates to conduct a forensic investigation of grave-site conditions present in the casket and soil below to determine if anomalous constituents are present that would indicate possible foul play prior to interment in the late 1940s. Soil geochemistry was evaluated with laboratory chemical and radiological analyses, x-ray diffraction analysis of soil samples, and associated pathologic studies by microscope of selected bones samples.
  • Confidential Client: A Major Oil & Gas Refinery Operator brought suit against a contractor regarding a radionuclide incident that occurred during welding-inspection activities. Engaged to assess the cost of the radionuclide remediation in terms of actual costs and potential costs beyond expectations.
  • Confidential Client: A Major Oil & Gas Exploration Company engaged an experienced drilling company to drill wells on producing acreage. Upon drilling to less than 1,000 feet, the ground below the rig became unstable and the rig overturned. The drilling company brought litigation against the operator to cover the cost of repairs on the grounds of insufficient warning of unstable ground, etc. engaged to evaluate the geological conditions present below the rig and to determine, if possible, the likely cause(s) of the incident.
  • Confidential Client: A Major Oil & Gas Company assumed ownership of a gas transmission plant in the Southwest U.S. but was subsequently sued by an adjacent landowner for allegedly contaminating the shallow ground water below the adjacent farmland. Engaged to observe the sampling programs conducted by the Plaintiff’s consultants and to assess these claims to determine, if possible, whether the contamination is present and likely to persist in the soil and groundwater, if present.
  • Confidential Client: A National Commercial Services Company was in the process of changing long-term operators of their local franchise in Texas and decided to conduct a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment. Conducted this Phase I ESA to assess the potential concerns involving long-term operations on the subject property and on the adjacent industrial properties surrounding the site and their handling of solvents and other hazardous materials.
  • Confidential Client: An Out-of-State Minority Owner of Oil & Gas Interests in Texas had reasons to doubt that the royalty interests being received were accurate. Engaged to coordinate a review of the holdings in six counties, the present activities, and potential activities or environmental issues that may affect the Owner’s interests. Each property was evaluated in terms of total production, royalties paid and distributed, and the nature of any litigation that is pending in any of the properties evaluated.
  • Confidential Client: A Commercial Land Owner was notified that the shallow ground water under an adjacent property was contaminated with solvents and had likely migrated below the land owner’s property. Engaged as part of litigation brought against the adjacent land owners to assess the subsurface conditions in the area surrounding the subject property to determine if other sources of contamination also exists. Other possible sources were identified and are being evaluated whether these sources also impact the subject property.
  • Confidential Client: A Real-Estate Transaction was about to take place when the presence of an underground, backyard shelter was disclosed. engaged to conduct an investigation by probing the subsurface and exposing the shelter and associated piping. A small metal tank carrying a few gallons of degraded gasoline was uncovered and removed. Sampling of the underlying soils and of the water found within the shelter were conducted and analyzed by a local laboratory. A report was prepared and included as part of the disclosure for finalizing the real estate transaction.
  • Duke Energy: I2M personnel led due diligence team for acquisition of Pan Energy 30,000 miles of pipeline and refineries and LNG facilities and terminals in Europe, U.S. and Latin America.
  • U.S. Government: Operations consultant for permitting and redevelopment of industrial sites for conversion into the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Designed and managed construction upgrades for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.
  • Confidential Clients: Due diligence assessments conducted by I2M personnel for chemical plants, refineries, and commercial redevelopment projects in 33 states in U.S.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel managed water studies, raw material studies, and site and fuel selection for new industrial developments, alternative fuel and economic siting studies and permitting for facilities in Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Florida, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Rocky Mountain states, Alaska, Pacific Coast, and Latin America.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel performed due diligence and compliance audits for oil and gas facilities, pipelines, oil field service company facilities, and terminals in multiple states in the U.S.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel assessed issues related to releases of chromium and other metals, sulfuric acid and high-sulfate discharges, and degreasing solvents from plating operations, manufacturing and fabricating activities, and from deterioration of specialty steels and pipe/valve cutting operations.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel conducted groundwater modeling assessment of historical sources of releases, migration pathways, and natural attenuation capacity for ground water plumes at over 300 sites in Southern U.S.

General Studies Funded by Companies:

  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel pioneered use of injected electron receptors (HRC/ORC) , telescoped cased wells, cone penetrometers, tracer studies, chemical fingerprinting, slant hole drilling and advanced well grouts for remediating groundwater plumes.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel performed hydrogeologic modeling for oil service companies, oil fields, gas plants, and other industrial operations in Carolinas, Georgia, Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel utilized a 3D model to accurately predict the recovery and reduction of pesticide and solvent concentrations at multiple sites.

Local and State Governments: I2M personnel provided assistance to both small and large governmental entities by providing consulting services in support of over 20 alternative energy and sustainability related patents. Led development and construction planning for commercial structures, including initial LEED (Green Building) projects in Houston area. Project consultant for Regional Governmental study of wastewater treatment systems and regional receiving stream surface water quality.

  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel provided consulting services to improve effluent quality of public and industrial wastewater treatment plants.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel provided consulting services to industry and power plants for cooling water and boiler water treatment, using reverse osmosis, including water supply studies for a 1,000 MW Power Plant.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel provided consultation regarding water-supply impacts, emergency-spill response practices, cleanup technologies, economic analyses, land-use evaluations, and insurance claims for aquifers in California, Washington and other states.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel conducted EPA, NSF, and HUD research regarding protection of surface-water supplies.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel conducted API research regarding protection of water supplies.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel designed and provided daily operational trouble-shooting of water supply and wastewater treatment plants at crude oil storage facilities.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel provided river basin planning for water supply development, new regional wastewater treatment facilities, and surface water quality waste loadings.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel conducted permitting evaluation and wastewater treatment studies for industrial parks in California and Washington.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel conducted compliance audits for water supply treatment plants and wastewater treatment plants.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel performed feasibility study and fatal flaw analysis for wastewater system upgrades for facilities discharging into the Mississippi River in Louisiana.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel performed feasibility study for privatization of public water supply and publicly-owned wastewater treatment plants.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel conducted pretreatment studies for industrial discharges to POTWs for multiple clients in multiple states.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel performed toxicity assessments of wastewater treatment plant effluent.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel conducted biomonitoring studies for industrial discharges to POTWs.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel conducted environmental impact assessments of projects on drinking water supplies and environmental and public health risk assessment and economic analysis of impacts to nearby receptors and natural sources.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel developed Edwards Aquifer water supplies for commercial and governmental projects in Central and South Texas.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel provided comprehensive evaluation of damage claims by San Antonio Water System associated with water supply well workovers. Researched water system records, developed accurate water consumption estimates and prepared expert report that facilitated case settlement.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel completed water supply study for residential development in Conroe, Texas.
  • Confidential Clients: I2M personnel investigated source of methane emissions from limestone aquifer underlying a 600-lot luxury residential development in central Texas.

Pre-2005 Projects:

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel performed water conservation assessments as part of environmental impact assessments in support of HUD funding for projects.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel directed upgrade studies for water well field and water distribution system for a 2,000-home community.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel negotiated with contractors for system testing and for civil engineering and construction for water line replacement and repairs, developed program to encourage recycling and negotiation water system improvements with Harris County on behalf of community. Developed plan to digitize water and wastewater utilities for the community and lead the development of a new master plan for city utilities.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel designed water system extension and testified regarding EPA’s cross connection of aquifers and mischaracterization of water supplies. Completed 4,500 feet of continuous coring and other advanced technology field studies, advanced downhole geophysical studies, microseismic studies, T.V. camera slant hole logging, tracer studies, and age dating.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel assisted in developing the use in groundwater studies of CPT and hydropunch technologies, statistically-based sampling, field screening, GIS databases, remote sensing, advanced soil gas surveys and geophysical logging, fingerprinting, age dating, slant hole drilling, diffusion modeling, hydrofracturing, in situ bioremediation and advanced containment strategies to protect public water supplies.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel designed groundwater treatment systems for over 300 sites in Texas and Louisiana.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel provided emergency response actions at Superfund and train derailment sites including development of alternate water supplies.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel conducted due diligence and compliance audits and environmental site assessments for over 1,500 sites in the U.S., Central and South America, Europe, Southeast Asia, Africa and the Middle East.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel conducted research regarding development of handling procedures for industrial chemicals to support EPA rule-making.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel assessed water rights, stream assimilative capacity, flood control and make-up water quality constraints and permitting problems for commercial developments, power stations and industrial plant expansions.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel conducted groundwater investigations at several Superfund Sites, including Sheridan (Hempstead), Bio-Ecology (Dallas), Odessa I and II, San Jacinto Tar Pits, Hardage; Remedial design for Vertac (Arkansas); & RI/FS Critiques for several NPL sites.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel conducted feasibility studies for geothermal, coal gasification, and alternative fuel and power generation projects in U.S., South America, and Asia Pacific.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel have conducted numerous Environmental Impact Assessments for new oil and gas field developments in Africa, combined with permitting and siting, planning, fuel selection, transmission analyses and economic evaluations for 1,000 MW power generating complex.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel have provided coal-prospect assessments, mine planning, and permitting for over 20 projects in U.S. and South America.

Confidential Clients: I2M personnel managed power system planning projects for southern U.S. utilities and have provided comprehensive scoping studies for environmental assessments of the 75 square mile Jasper Unit of Tri-State Mining Area for private parties as part of a U.S. Superfund Program investigation.

Confidential Client: An Industrial Land Owner, who has a long-term lease with a large car-parts operation in Texas, engaged I2M Associates to evaluate Phase I and II environmental site assessments conducted by local consultants. I2M Associates focused on the completeness of the reports and on whether they met the prevailing standard of care and requirements of ASTM guidelines. The likely cost of remediation was also estimated. Follow-up work is anticipated to evaluate the previously indicated areas of concern for likely remediation.

Confidential Client: An Industrial Trucking Company was involved in a spill at a fuel transfer site in central Texas. Engaged to review the available documentation of previous conditions, conduct site investigations, and prepare a report on the indicated surface and subsurface conditions before and after a diesel oil spill that occurred during the unloading of fuel from a tanker into a storage tank and on the likely cost to remediate the subject property.

Confidential Client: A Ranch Owner in South-Central Texas made an agreement with a predecessor oil company to repair an access road for usual traffic. Defendant oil company refused to comply on the basis of state and federal wetlands rules that allegedly prohibit the type of road construction desired by Plaintiff. Engaged to evaluate Defendant claims and the feasibility and cost to re-build road through area where a previous oil spill was reported.

I2M Associates ProjectsConfidential Client: An Industrial Client was engaged to repair a high-capacity municipal well pump in a suburb of a large metropolitan city in the Southwest U.S. for a private water company which was not continuously chlorinating the produced raw ground water. Two children died in separate incidents caused by Naegleria fowleri, a rare species of protozoa. When in large numbers, Naegleria fowleri are capable of entering through the nose of humans and after reaching the brain, causes death within 3-5 days. Engaged to evaluate the disinfection procedures conducted during and after the pump repair, the nature of the subsurface hydrogeology in the area, and to review and comment on the Plaintiff expert reports.

Confidential Client: A Real-Estate Developer purchased land in South Texas following a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment conducted by a local consultant. Early construction excavated industrial waste materials and associated refuse which brought into question whether the consultant had performed the assessment according to the prevailing professional standard of care and associated standards. Engaged to assess the actions of the consultant in this matter.

Confidential Client: Operator of Dry-Cleaning Facility has been requested by property owner to evaluate possible contamination of the subsurface soils and ground water by dry-cleaning agents. Engaged by defendant’s attorney to conduct subsurface hydrogeological investigations involving sampling of soil and ground water and analyses for DNAPL and associated constituents.

Confidential Client: Attorney representing national restaurant chain that is acquiring land for development and construction has engaged I2M Associates to conduct a Phase I environmental site assessment on land in Tomball, Texas.

Confidential Client: Previous Owner Accused of Contaminating Off-site Property
A previous owner of an electroplating company sold the operations, and after 7 years, the new owner accuses previous owner of a major spill. Engaged to investigate the available data and opine on the likely causes(s) of the metals contamination once present in the soil before removal operations were conducted by the present owner.

Confidential Client: Pipeline Investigations on Removal and Likely Environmental Impact
A prominent agricultural producer allowed a major natural gas company to drill, produce, and distribute natural gas from company lands. Engaged to investigate the likely environmental impact to lands and associated ground water and surface water if the pipeline is not removed from below sensitive agricultural soils, according to the original agreement.


Mr. D. Campbell on investigations describing core samples, 2003.

Confidential Client: Brine-Spreading by Oil Industry and Shallow Ground-Water Supplies
A company dealing in oil & gas field equipment has applied brine on their property over the past few years in a State-permitted activity to reduce dust. Some of the adjacent property owners have indicated that drinking water from their original, shallow water wells tasted salty. Engaged to conduct hydrogeologic investigations to determine the likely cause(s) of the alleged contamination.

Confidential Client: Engaged to Provide Technical Support in a Major Landfill Case in Southern U.S engaged I2M Associates personnel to provide technical support on assessing landfill permitting issues, impact on shallow and deep ground water, and assessing opposing consultant’s activities during the permitting phase and subsequent activities.

Confidential Client: Real-Estate Transactions and Consultant Responsibility
A commercial real-estate transaction in Texas came under dispute on the basis of the identification of asbestos materials in the subsurface after the transaction had closed. engaged to evaluate the environmental consultant’s activities during its Phase I Environmental Site Assessment, in light of the consultant’s responsibility, experience, staff capability, field procedures and associated ASTM guidelines and industry standard of care.

Confidential Client: A Preliminary Environmental Site Assessment for Large Landowner with Long-Term Oil & Gas Production in Texas
Landowner required an environmental site assessment of the impact of nearly 30 years of oil and gas production on the land and on local ground water, identifying principal areas of concern and recommendations for required clean-up operations and further testing of soil and ground water.

Confidential Client: Causes of Production Water Well Casing Failure
A manufacturer of stainless steel casing engaged I2M Associates to conduct preliminary investigations and to review available information on the likely cause(s) of casing failures in two large-diameter, high-capacity water wells during completion activities of wells located in an agricultural district of the western U.S.


Mr. M. Campbell and Mr. D. Campbell at Utah field investigations, 1998.

Confidential Client: Gas Production, a Cause of Shallow Drinking Water Contamination?

A rancher in Texas reported his private water well system began pumping “bad” water after a work-over on a nearby producing gas well. Engaged to investigate the likely source of the contamination using hydrochemistry and isotope studies.

Confidential Client: Assessing Opposing Consultants’ Opinions
Engaged to support an assessment of opposing consultants’ opinions on a case in the Southern U.S. involving the use of creosote and associated products for wood treatment and to assess opposing views and positions as they related to the contamination of soils and associated ground water. Hydrogeologic studies and preliminary contaminant transport modeling were assessed.

Confidential Client: Lead in Rural Domestic Water System
Lead has appeared in anomalous concentrations in drinking water within a rural home from a domestic ground-water system located in the State of New York. Engaged to sample and evaluate likely source(s) of the lead and associated constituents, which may have played a role in the learning disabilities reported in the youngest child of the rural family. Hydrogeologic studies of the surrounding area and hydrochemistry with associated field parameters were assessed.

Confidential Client: Remediation of Large PCE Plume in Southern City of U.S.
Engaged to provide technical support on designing and estimating capital and operating costs for a large injection well field using a patented in-situ technology to remove PCE and associated constituents from a large plume originally released by a dry cleaning facility over a number of years. Cost-sensitivity analyses were conducted with input from remediation contractors and available Phase II data from monitoring wells, borings and associated sampling over a few years.

Confidential Client: Another Real-Estate Transaction with Issues of Consultant Responsibility
A large real estate company engaged an environmental consulting firm in Texas to conduct Phase I and Phase II Environmental Site Assessments for a large multi-property shopping center transaction. Initial findings by the consultant led the real-estate company to close on the deal. Subsequent investigations by a second consultant found DNAPL associated with dry-cleaners located on the properties. Engaged to provide support in an evaluation of the initial consultant’s activities in light of the consultant’s experience, staff capability, field procedures and related ASTM guidelines and industry standard of care.

Confidential Client: Hamburger, Rural Water Wells, Creeks, and E. coli
A pathogenic variant of E. coli, (O157:H7), has appeared as the likely source of illness affecting a rural family in the State of Washington. Engaged to assess the likely source(s) of the pathogenic bacteria. The area is characterized by numerous, closely spaced, small farms, with cattle, sheep, wildlife, septic tank systems, and a stream, all in the immediate vicinity of a shallow water well used as a source of drinking water.

Confidential Client Needs Mineral Commodity with Special Qualities
Engaged to conduct a literature search, a land ownership survey, a field evaluation with geological sampling and laboratory analyses to determine if the mineral commodity meets certain production requirements in quality and quantity.

Confidential Client: An Issue of Consultant Representations
A service station proprietor in Illinois was accused by the land owner of contaminating soil and ground water with BTEX and MTBE. Engaged to review the available sampling and hydrogeologic data and determined that the owner’s consultant was less than forthcoming concerning the data used to characterize the ground-water conditions and the configuration of the plume of contamination. When using all of the relevant data, a major source of the contamination was found to be more likely an adjacent car-wash facility.

Confidential Client: Rights of Landowner of Sand-and-Gravel Properties
A major sand-and-gravel company in Texas drilled on portions of a potential lessor’s land without permission on the basis that “the company was doing the land owner a favor.” The company sued the land owner for breach of contract (i.e., alleged failure to honor their rights to conduct mining operations on the subject land). Reviewed the issues of the case and found that the company violated the landowner’s rights to limit ingress according to standard industry practice.

Confidential Client: Failure of Production Water Well and Insurance Protection
The failure of a high-capacity water well owned by a municipal utility district in Texas prompted management to turn to their insurance company for funds to replace the well, according to the terms of the policy. I2M Associates personnel conducted a preliminary investigation and found evidence to suggest that regional soft-sediment faulting caused the well structure to fail.

Confidential Client: Impact of Underground Coal Mining on Historic Old Growth Trees
Underground coal mining was called into question on leases containing the last “old growth” trees in Ohio. Trees more than 300 years have deep, frail roots. Engaged to assess the likely impact on the hydrogeological conditions below these trees where dewatering would be required before coal mining could begin.


Associates at work, 1997. Dr. Flory, Mr. M. Campbell, and Mr. Woodward (left to right).

Confidential Client: Consultant Responsibilities for Activities on a Large Chemical Plant
A major chemical plant in Louisiana brought a suite against its previous consultant for exacerbating DNAPL contamination below its production facility during and after an ill-conceived monitoring well drilling program. Asked to review the relevant information and to determine if the consultant’s activities were likely responsible for the DNAPL contaminating the deep aquifers.

Confidential Client: Early NCP and Associated Liabilities
The National Contingency Plan (NCP) of the 1970s was invoked in an attempt to force an industrial company in Ohio to join a group of PRPs to clean up an old dump site in Indiana. Engaged to evaluate claims made by ex-EPA consultants for the plaintiffs that the NCP carried weight when applied to inland contamination in the mid-1970s.

Confidential Client: Liabilities of the Water-Supply Operator to the Community it Serves
A municipal water supply operator in Texas was sued by the community it served for allegedly allowing benzene to be distributed in the water supply it provided. engaged to investigate the possible source of the benzene and determined that: 1) testing was not required by the operator, and hence did not know of the presence of benzene, and 2) the source of the benzene was likely the gas-producing formation below the drinking-water aquifer breached by overdrilling into the confining unit separating the aquifer from the gas-producing sand below.

Confidential Client: Contamination of Ground-Water Supplies by Nearby Oil & Gas Drilling
A large landowner operating a cattle ranch in West Texas noticed increased salty ground water produced from water supply wells, which threatened the health of the cattle and the economic viability of the ranching operations. Engaged to conduct a hydrogeologic investigations involving: sampling of numerous wells on the large property, a geologic field survey with sampling, and a review of aerial photography to assess likely source(s) of the contamination.


Graduating Class of 1993: Institute of Environmental Technology. Mr. M. Campbell, Principal Instructor (front, far right). See Publications on the subject. Founded the IET with a group of senior environmental professionals in the Houston area to provide “boot camp” training for post-graduates requiring cross-training to enter the environmental field. See IET webpage (more).

Superfund Representation and Technical Support – Numerous Clients Throughout U.S.
Served on Technical Committees for various Superfund projects representing DuPont, and as senior technical support for a number of environmental consulting companies. Litigation support.

RCRA Technical Support – Numerous Clients Throughout U.S.
Provides senior technical support on hydrogeologic and contaminant transport investigations for site characterization and remedial design and operation and maintenance relating to effectiveness. Litigation support.

Michael D. Campbell, Regional Technical Manager and Chief Hydrogeologist, (front, far right)
with staff of Central Region DuPont Environmental Group, Houston, 1992.

DuPont Environmental Remediation Services, Inc. (DERS) – Mr. Campbell screened and increased staff numbers and managed a large, multi-disciplinary group of geological and engineering professionals to handle all technical projects of the Central Region of this Fortune 100 company via line responsibility of five departments, i.e., Geology, Environmental Services, Design and Construction Engineering, and Deep Well Injection Services. Mr. Campbell instituted new personnel screening procedures and reporting responsibilities designed to increase billings and profitability in providing a range of environmental services to clients (upstream) and suppliers (downstream) of DuPont, as well as to DuPont plants throughout the central U.S. region, and Mexico. He provided QA/QC oversight of all reports, designs, and products issued by the Central region office coordinating with contractors and local plant managers and their associated staffs.

Mr. Campbell served on the Corporate Technical Committee consisting of the three Technical Managers of DERS from Wilmington, Maryland, Oakland, California, and Houston. The objective of the committee was to encourage common procedures, reporting formats, and technical cooperation between the three DERS offices. Mr. Campbell, as the senior professional on the committee and central office, focused on new technology in groundwater technology for use by DERS throughout the U.S. Finally, Mr. Campbell, as well as the other two regional technical managers, were also tasked to represent DuPont on numerous Superfund Principal Responsible Parties (PRP) committees to guide staff implementing clean-up activities and to support and provide oversight to DuPont contractors in multi-party PRP Superfund projects.

Environmental Assessments – Numerous Clients Throughout U.S.

Provided technical direction and consultation on more than 300 environmental assessments for real estate transactions, corporate mergers or buyouts, and bank foreclosures, many of which involved evaluations of potential brine contamination of oil and gas production facilities and properties. Approximately 20% of the properties investigated required follow-up investigations involving drilling. Of those, approximately 5% required some type of remedial activities which ultimately led to the design, construction operation and maintenance of remediation systems. Litigation support.

Alcoa Aluminum, Inc. – RCRA Part B Permit Application
Provided senior review and analysis of groundwater investigations of subsurface conditions around plant site. Hydrogeologic evaluations involving contaminant transport modeling and long-term monitoring.

Leaking Underground Storage Tank Investigations – Numerous Clients Throughout U.S.
Provides senior review and consultation for technical staff on more than 200 investigations ranging from site characterization through remedial design to construction, operation and maintenance of remediation systems. Type of remediation approach varied from pump-and-treat to vapor extraction to in-situ bioremediation systems, depending upon subsurface conditions. Litigation support.


Law Engineering, Inc. appointed Mr. M. Campbell as First Hydrogeological Corporate Consultant (Chief Hydrogeologist) at Law Engineering, 1990 (more).

Mr. Campbell was employed as a Senior Hydrogeologist for the Houston office and was responsible overseeing all hydrogeological investigations as part of the numerous geotechnical investigations conducted by Law Engineering. Also assigned to support Phase I and II investigations conducted for industrial clients by Law Environmental, Inc. in offices nearby. Within two years, he was elevated to the position of Hydrogeological Consultant (equivalent to Chief Hydrogeologist) traveling throughout the 50 offices in the U.S., providing training and oversight of hydrogeological and mining-related projects. Initiated Law Engineering Offices in Seattle and Tulsa and appointed Jeff King to manage the Seattle office and Tom Alexander to manage the Tulsa office.

Merchants Trucking, Inc. – Cavalcade Superfund Site Investigations

Provided analysis of remediation project proposed by PRP on contamination by BTEX and Coal Tar substances. Investigation involved evaluation of selected technology and estimated capital and O&M costs.

State of Georgia – Landfill Lawsuit
Provided expert witness testimony on litigation involving landfill location in central Georgia with emphasis on present hydrogeologic conditions (see summary of litigation activities).

Compaq Computer, Inc – Geotechnical & Dewatering Investigations
Provided senior review and consultation on ground-water investigations at new plant site in Houston.

General Electric – Ground-water Assessment
Provided senior hydrogeological direction and support for PCE and BETX leaks in plants located in North and South Carolina. Designed assessment plans and designed and implemented remediation systems consisting of pump-and-treat, stripping tower, carbon canisters and recirculation circuit, and other remediation designs.


Mr. Michael D. Campbell, P.G., P.H., and Dr. Ted H. Foss, P.G., Principals of Campbell, Foss and Buchanan, Inc., (C,F&B) Mining and Environmental Consultants, Houston, 1985. See Publications on the Subjects: Environmental and Mining.

Norse Windfall Mines, Inc. – Management and Environmental Investigations

CF&B provided consulting services for the development of a gold and silver mining operation in Nevada. The firm provided senior review and consultation over a three-year period on water supply development and environmental monitoring of ground-water conditions in area of mill and precious metal processing plant for a mine in central Nevada. Managed start-up operations and cash flow, and instituted daily monitoring program of data collection and analysis of heap leach (pregnant liquor) process hydrochemical data. Conducted analyses of flow behavior in heap-leach operations (more). Represented company and negotiated with state and federal regulatory agencies. Generated company’s personnel and corporate policy manual, including health and safety provisions.

The CF&B team, led by Dr. Foss, played a key role in putting together a multi-national joint venture of European firms (here). The team also led the negotiation with Amselco to purchase a large property, which was subsequently drilled and put into development and production. On behalf of the Joint Venture, the project also involved supervising and management of the construction of a 12-mile haul road from the Lookout Mt. deposit to the newly constructed heap-leach pads and refurbished processing plant.

Gold dore production

I2M’s Founder, Mr. Jeffrey D. King, P.G., served as Mine Manager for the day-to-day operations, and the support team consisting of Dr. Foss and Mr. Campbell at CF&B provided services for the oversight management of operations and exploration. The team made additional discoveries that were subsequently mined by others. Other functions involved the transport and delivery of high-quality doré to the refinery in Salt Lake City and other management functions. Dr. Foss passed away in 2003 (more).

As a result, the current I2M team has considerable experience in the planning, the security and managing of precious and base-metal exploration and mining projects in the U.S. and overseas, and currently monitors activities of a number of commodities for clients (more). This includes experience both in terms of evaluating prospects, bringing mines into production, and processing relevant environmental permitting requirements in such projects as gold and silver production via heap-leaching of gold ore to producing gold doré while monitoring associated security issues and mine management.

Municipal Landfill Investigations
Provided senior review and consultation on proposed landfill construction projects involving sitting investigations and hydrogeologic characterizations.


Mr. Brian Ward, P.G., Field Geologist and Mr. M. Campbell, Senior Geologist, inspecting uranium occurrence in fluvial sandstone in shallow underground mine, Utah, 1978.

Dolet Hills Mining Co., Mansfield, LA
Dewatering/Depressurizing Project. Provided senior consultation and direction on mine dewatering/Depressurizing program, involving aquifer testing and analysis, dewatering well system design and construction, flow-net construction and updating as overburden was removed and mining advanced. Installed dewatering/depressurizing well system and monitored and adjusted system operations.

Confidential Insurance Company – Ground-Water Assessments of Contaminants
Resulting from Manufactured Gas Facilities. Provided direction and consultation to nationwide investigations on reliability and appropriateness of proposed / operating remediation systems and associated site characterizations of LNAPL and DNAPL contaminant plumes and product (and dissolved plume) migration in the subsurface.


In Alaska on Field Investigations, 1982. Mr. Steve Campbell, Operations Manager, Mr. D. Campbell, Field Geologist, and Mr. M. D. Campbell, Senior Mining Geologist / Hydrogeologist.

 

 

 


M. D. Campbell Leading Minerals Exploration and Development Program (Exploration and Water-Quality Assessment), Alaska, 1980.

 

 


M. D. Campbell conducting Mining and Hydrogeologic Assessments for Mineral Investigations, Eastern District, Sudan, 1984.

 

 


M. D. Campbell on regional mineral exploration program for Texas Eastern Nuclear in the Red Sea Hills District of Sudan in 1984 meeting with the local people.

 

 

 

 

UNESCO-UNDP Team on Ground-Water Protection, Development, and Contamination Assessment, November, 1978: Prof. Ingmar Larson, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (second from left), Mr. M. Campbell, (third from left), and Dr. Robert Dijon, UNDP, New York (far right).

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Ground-water characterization, exploration and development in igneous and metamorphic terrains of the world, Special Project 33. Selected as member of a seven-member international team of specialists on ground-water exploration and development throughout the sphere of influence of UNESCO projects. Conducted extended lectures/seminars and investigations on groundwater development and ground-water technology in Sweden, Italy, India, and Tanzania.

United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
Senior review and analysis of U.N. Ground-water Exploration and Development Program in Developing Countries, 1962 through 1977. Conducted multi-year evaluation of UN-sponsored ground-water programs throughout the world via project report analyses and UN personnel interviews.

In the Stillwater Range next to Dixie Valley, Nevada, Mr. M. D. Campbell evaluating surface geologic conditions for a geothermal and mineral investigation, 1976. See Publications on the subject.

Geothermal Energy Investigations – Various Clients – Nevada, California, Texas
Conducted numerous investigations on the hydrogeological, structural and geophysical conditions of a number of liquid-dominated and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs in Nevada, California, and Texas to determine potential economic value of selected properties. Recommended further exploration and development in Dixie Valley. A significant geothermal reservoir was subsequently discovered and proved to be suitable for commercial development. Power plant became operational in 1987 and is producing electricity for the Nevada-California power grid.

The present U.S. energy requirements consist of a mix of natural resources, essentially of natural gas, coal and uranium. Geothermal energy is another resource that is contributing but has gone largely undeveloped in the U.S., mainly because of the dominance of oil & gas interests in traditional resources. Even though exploring for and developing geothermal energy are remarkably similar to that of oil & gas, geothermal energy awaits further development. Only a few oil & gas companies in the U.S. have ventured into the field. Chevron, for example, began producing geothermal energy in the late 1970s in Dixie Valley, Valley and elsewhere. Aside from geothermal in southern and central California, the Dixie Valley project in central Nevada is also producing significant electricity for the California Power grid. I2M principals conducted the early geological investigations prior to follow-up work by the Desert Research Institute of the University of Nevada as Chevron began to implement a development program and ultimate production and electrical generation from the Dixie Valley area over the ensuing years. I2M principals and associates have also evaluated geothermal reserves in The Geysers and Salton Sea regions of California, and throughout the state of Texas.

I2M Geothermal intends to begin reviewing prospects and the new technologies associated with developing marginal resources in remote regions (see more).

International Paper – Lignite Exploration and Development Program (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Arkansas)
Conducted/supervised shallow drilling, geophysical, and geologic logging, reserve calculations and quality assessments of IP properties throughout south-central U.S.


Mr. M. D. Campbell on a Coal Mine and De-Watering Project, Utah, 1978. See Publications on the subject.

Geologic and Hydrogeologic Investigations – Numerous Clients

Conducted and supervised preliminary mining feasibility studies, mineral property evaluations and environmental assessments for numerous clients in the U.S., including Alaska, and South America, Central America, Africa, India, and other countries.

Mr. M. D. Campbell presented a series of lectures for Keplinger Seminars on Geology and Environmental Impact of Alternate Energy Resources, New York City, 1977. See Publications on the subject.

 

M. D. Campbell visiting the site once known as French’s Dump in 1974; by the late 1980s, the site was known as French Limited Superfund Site, where more than $90 Million were spent by industry to clean up contaminated soil and underlying ground water (Left).

City of Houston – Well Field Investigations
Provided analysis of probable causes for unanticipated well/pump failures in city’s system. Conducted metallurgical and hydrochemical analyses of failed pump components and well conditions prior to pump failures. Recommended improving operation and maintenance procedures and establishing new ground-water sampling and well performance protocol.

NWWA Research Committee, 1972, Standing, left to right: Mr. Truman Bennett, P.G., Consultant, Prof. James A. Warman, Auburn University, and Mr. Robert Heater, Master Water Well Contractor, Seated, left to right: Mr. David E. Smith, Research Associate, Ms. Lesley Powell Cooper, Administrative Assistant, Mr. Michael D. Campbell, Director of Research, Mr. William A. Hunt, Research Associate. See Publications during this period.

Research Facility of the National Water Well Association – Early Research in Support of Federal Environmental Programs
Co-founded NWWA’s Research Facility and performed research on EPA and other federal grants in the areas of ground-water contamination, water-well design, construction, operation, and maintenance, and rural water systems, etc. Moved Facility to Rice University in 1973.

Mr. Rusty L. Schweickart, Astronaut, Apollo 9, Author of Forward to Water Well Technology and Mr. M. D. Campbell, Senior Author of Water Well Technology (McGraw-Hill), 1973.

Various Clients – Coal and Lignite Development Feasibility Investigations (Washington, Pennsylvania, Australia and Colombia)

Conducted exploration programs for numerous clients to evaluate and estimate reserve base available, preliminary mining feasibility and property value.

United Nuclear Corporation (UNC)
Geologic and hydrogeologic investigations, Western U.S. Conducted investigations in numerous states to screen geologic environments for favorable conditions for the occurrence of uranium and other strata-bound minerals. As a principal part of such investigations, numerous hydrochemical facies of favorable geologic intervals were evaluated to further screen prospective environments. Also, conducted water supply investigations (drilling, sampling, and aquifer testing) at UNC’s northwest New Mexico and central Wyoming mining operations.

Mr. M. D. Campbell on a Hydrogeologic Field Evaluation near Gundagai, Western New South Wales, Australia, 1969.

Continental Oil Company (CONOCO)
Mining development projects in Australia and Southeast Asia. Conducted and managed field exploration programs, geologic mapping, drilling operations, and water-supply investigations (well drilling, aquifer testing, and pipeline transport engineering) for projects involving industrial energy, precious minerals and base metals (discovery credited) and associated mining projects.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
Nationwide investigations on rapid response to protect ground-water resources from the effects of accidental spills of hydrocarbons and other hazardous substances. Selected as Special Consultant to Versar, Inc. and a Principal Consultant to 10-member team of specialists to evaluate and recommend activities to minimize ground-water contamination resulting from accidental spills of contaminants. Mr. Campbell was primarily involved in the detailed evaluation of spills nationwide, the development of non-contamination criteria involved in the hydrogeologic framework, and in the preparation of the EPA guidance document and its final editing (see Publications).

U.S. Commission on Rural Water (USCRW)
Investigations on engineering and economics of rural water systems. Served as Research Director to evaluate and recommend rural water well system design and associated O&M programs within context of the low-income environment of the rural communities (see Publications).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
Nationwide investigations on water well construction standards. Served as Principal Investigator of 15-member team of specialists on water well design and construction. Produced manual published by EPA on the subject (see Publications).

R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, North Carolina
Geophysical and geological exploration for development of high capacity ground-water supply. Conducted and supervised geophysical and geological investigations in igneous and metamorphic rocks of North Carolina for the purpose of providing a ground-water supply in excess of 500 gpm for industrial use.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
Investigation on the mobility of well-drilling additives in the ground-water system. Conducted investigations of commercially-available drilling fluids and assessed flow behavior in the ground-water reservoir and potential environmental impact on the hydrochemistry of aquifer systems (see Publications).

U.S. Office of Water Resources Research (USOWRR)
Investigations on state-of-the-science and art of water well technology. Conducted multi-year investigations of all aspects of shallow well technology, related environmental impact, and identified future research needs for EPA-sponsored investigations at the Kerr Ground-Water Research Center, Ada, Oklahoma and EPA Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio.

The Ohio State University, Water Resources Division
Investigations on ground-water contamination and plume development by open brine disposal pits, Morrow County, Ohio. Served as undergraduate research assistant to Dr. Jay H. Lehr and Dr. Wayne A. Pettyjohn on investigations including ground-water sampling, data analysis, and laboratory model construction and simulation of field conditions. Conducted contaminant transport and hydrochemical analysis of brine contaminant plume and associated modeling.


Feel free to contact us to discuss your project needs or to arrange a speaking engagement by one of our Associates for a professional training session, a technical conference, society meeting, or for a graduation ceremony or other function where the knowledge and experience of our Associates may be of interest to your group.

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