The I2M team led by Chief Hydrogeologist, Michael D. Campbell, C.P.G., P.G., P.H., and supported by M. David Campbell, P.G., VP and Senior Program Manager; Roger W. Lee, Ph.D., P.G., I2M’s Senior Geochemical Associate; and by Glen A. Collier, C.P.G., P.G., Senior Hydrogeologist of Hydrex Environmental, LLC in Nacogdoches, Texas have collaborated to produce the paper published by the Journal of Geology and Geoscience, London entitled:
“Anatomy of a Case of Elevated Chloride in the Shallow Black Hand Sandstone Providing Rural Drinking Water Supplies in North-Central Ohio, USA: Hydrogeological and Hydrochemical Characterization by Major and Minor Elements, and δ2H, δ18O, δ13C and Tritium (3H) Isotopes.”
Authors pre-publication copy (here).
Summary Abstract: Elevated chloride concentrations (>250 mg/l) were reported to the Ohio State Environmental Protection Agency in the early 2000s by a rural resident using groundwater for domestic consumption from a private water well. An adjacent commercial oil and gas pipe yard had spread relatively small volumes of oilfield brines from 1998 through 2000 to control dust during summers and to de-ice on the property driveways; county and state agencies used halite and other brines on surrounding rural county and state highways during the winter. There are multiple sources in the immediate area that might have contributed to local groundwater by varying degrees, resulting in elevated chloride concentrations reported in the samples from the on-site monitoring wells and from the neighborhood water wells over the years prior to 2004, the time of our investigations. See full abstract in paper.
Keywords: Black Hand Sandstone; Cuyahoga shales; siltstones and sandstones; glacial till; rural groundwater supplies; rural water wells; nested monitoring wells; de-icing activities; use of brine; elevated chloride concentrations; major and minor element hydrochemistry; hydrogeological investigations; 2H (deuterium) and 18O isotopes; 13C (DIC); 3H (tritium); Clinton brine; water-softening systems; septic-tank and leach-field/drain-field systems.