Brownfields & Redevelopment Projects

Brownfields & Redevelopment Projects 2017-12-13T12:09:17+00:00

I2M personnel will quickly and comprehensively evaluate hazardous waste sites, identify issues, data gaps, and redevelopment challenges. Using this information we then identify strategies to investigate, evaluate, and remediate environmental issues while at the same time integrating future land use planning in order to decrease the overall redevelopment schedule and costs. Our experience with public planning agencies, environmental regulatory agencies, landowners, developers, engineers, land use planners, and other stakeholders has provided us with the ability to truly see the big picture while focusing on efficiently completing the site cleanup process and preparing the property for redevelopment.

Below are a few of the various types of sites investigated and remediated in the U.S. by I2M personnel over the years for the the purpose of real-estate redevelopment, for remediation on and within petroleum refining sites, and for Superfund sites:

  • Aidex Pesticide Manufacturing Facility: I2M personnel provided technical strategy and direction for soil assessment, remediation, and redevelopment of the First US “Super (Waste) Fund” site cleaned up and returned to commercial use.
  • Bailey Chemical Waste Pits – Bridge City, Texas Project: This approximately 280-acre chemical waste disposal site operated creating general environmental contamination including soil and surrounding tidal marsh. The contamination created exposure of organic chemicals and metals to local fish populations and consequently to the general public who used the area as a recreational fishing location. The landfill was a designated CERCLA site. The contractor-led investigation / remediation team was failing in their cleanup work by running up the budget and schedule for completion and creating threats of court-action by U.S. EPA. This entity also was threatening their own lawsuit against the industry leadership, creating further disruption to the clean-up progress. The I2M team re-examined the contractor’s approach and suggested alternative actions to overcome the difficulties claimed by the contractor. The team provided timely and necessary insight to the contractor and the industry steering committee allowed progress on the project. The site remediation was completed and the revitalized site was converted to a protected wetland suitable for wildlife and recreational activities.
  • Hardage Industrial Waste Disposal Plant, Criner, Oklahoma Project: At another federally designated “Superfund” site, one of the lead I2M  experts demonstrated during a regulatory hearing that a $60 million remedy, rather than a $274 million, was the safest and fastest approach for remediating over a million cubic feet of soil at the 600- acre site contaminated with various heavy metals, pesticides, chlorinated solvents, and various U.S. Air Force defense related wastes.
  • DuPont, Washington – $150MM Ordinance Plant Superfund Project: I2M Associates’ Founder and CEO, Mr. Jeff King, P.G., provided project management and engineering support to the 880-acre DuPont/Weyhauser Site. The Project included cleanup of a 70-year-old decommissioned plant, which produced explosives for military operations during the early 1900s. The project consisted of drum removal, soil washing and removal of lead contaminated soils, and with the use of several disposal technologies. Mr. King also provided project oversight of the construction of a world-class golf course on sections of the large property, which included subsequent construction of high-end housing.
  • Tacoma, Washington – $90MM Herbicide-Pesticide Formulation Plant Superfund Project: I2M Founder, Jeff King, P.G., CEO of Pacific Environmental Remediation Corporation (PERC) and previous owner and Founder of I2M Associates, LLC, provided project management via RI-FS preparation and approval by State for removal of soils below existing office buildings and associated shallow materials at the 5-acre State Superfund Site. The project consisted of removal previous plant debris, soil washing (and soil replacement) of arsenic and lead contaminated soils, underlying sediments, and shallow groundwater, with installation and quarterly sampling of numerous monitoring wells and 24/7 monitoring of the pressure distribution within the shallow and intermediate aquifers to determine flow direction and rate of the contaminant plume, the former being subject to significant subsurface diurnal influences created by the Puget Sound tidal fluctuations nearby. Soil characterization and groundwater investigations were conducted by and under the supervision of I2M’s Chief Hydrogeologist, Michael D. Campbell, P.G., P.H., former Regional Technical Manager (Central U.S.) of DuPont’s Environmental Remediation Services (DERS), based in Houston, Texas during the 1990s (more).
  • Cleveland, OH – $300M Brownfields Project: East Flats Development requested remedial action for petroleum non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in groundwater at East Flats Site (Site), located in Cleveland, OH. At this site the manufactured gas product (MGP) NAPL was delineated within multiple affected areas (approximately 24,000 ft). The selected remedy was in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) to affect the destruction of the NAPL-free product to applicable Ohio standards of less than 1/8 inch of free product and concentrations of petroleum products in the soil to be less than soil saturation levels. Site closure was obtained.
  • Houston, Texas / University Of Texas (Former Industrial Facility): A corrective program under the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ) Volunteer Cleanup Program (VCP) was conducted in an area of 1600 SF where high concentrations of PCE were found in the soils. The area was marked in a grid pattern where high pressure injection of 20 percent Fenton’s Reagent was injected in several rounds of treatment. Soils concentrations were significantly reduced to levels acceptable for closure under the City MSD program. In the groundwater phase, shallow wells were designed of PVC casing and placed to a depth of 25 ft bgs in the plume area,where the concentration of Vinyl Chloride (VC) was targeted for treatment. Injection of the powerful oxidant, FMC Klozur, which was activated with a caustic solution was the choice for chemical treatment in the groundwater. Twenty-five (25) injection wells were located and installed to facilitate treatment of contaminants in the shallow groundwater.
  • Fort Worth, Texas, School and Training Facility (Brownfields): During a holiday period, the School approved In-situ (ISCO) Remediation using a modified Fenton’s Reagent technique to address Chloroform concentrations in soil. next to the school building. Soil & targets were to be reduced to below Tier 1 standards, i.e., 26–42 mg/kg in all soil areas. Furthermore, the objective of this plan was to achieve a remedy for the site to prevent chemicals of concern (COC’s) in the soil from leaching into the groundwater. Soils tested in the targeted areas showed results of 2 to 4 mg/kg after injection treatment.

Other Activities:

  • I2M personnel led investigation and remediation team for demolition, clean up and redevelopment of former Agent Orange and chloro-phenoxy herbicide and arsenical pesticide manufacturing plants in 5 states in U.S.
  • I2M personnel have served as technical consultant for the architectural design of the East Houston Senior Living Facility and Community Center, a redevelopment of the West Houston Heavy Industrial Site with funding from DuPont Conoco. Scope of services included assessing soil contamination, developing in-situ soil treatment, and overseeing final site cleanup and demolition and initial site redevelopment activities. Project won a National Award for Brownfield Redevelopment.
  • I2M personnel secured EPA $250,000 “brownfield” funding for a former medical treatment and manufacturing site, dating to the Civil War. Managed and directed site soil investigation, remediation, historic preservation, archaeological investigation, and site re-permitting for affordable housing and community center in the old 6th Ward of Houston, Texas. Project won a National Award from EPA for innovative redevelopment strategies.
  • I2M personnel led investigation and remediation team for 1,100 acre Doune Lake Industrial Park allocation and redevelopment near Willamette River in Oregon.
  • I2M personnel managed corrective action for DuPont chemical plant redevelopment for 8 sites in southern U.S.
  • I2M personnel have provided expert consulting relative to 23 “Brownfield” redevelopment projects in multiple states.


  • State of Louisiana Contractor: I2M-Reardon personnel contractor to provide and support remediation and redevelopment of 8 Superfund Sites in the state.
  • Clarks Summit, PA – Precision National Superfund Site: The 46-acre Precision National Plating Site is located in Clarks Summit, Pennsylvania. The site began operation as a chromium electroplating facility for locomotive crankshafts in 1956 and continued this operation until 1999 when it was closed. Using U.S EPA guidance, Precision National then calculated a soil cleanup level of 60 mg/Kg of hexavalent chromium in soil in order to meet the 11 ug/L hexavalent chromium standard for waters tested in the creek. This soil cleanup level was approved by USEPA, and the soil injection rate of 250,000 gallons containing 3 to 6% concentration of calcium polysulfide was injected under the I2M designs, methods and techniques. Successful testing of soils in all areas met or exceeded the target criteria.
  • Pensacola, FL – $15MM Agrico Superfund Action: I2M personnel prepared the final Design Plans and Specifications for a ROD negotiated with EPA, Region IV. The Remedial Action Plan consisted of construction activities, Project Management Plan, Community Relations, Quality Assurance, and Health and Safety Plans. A valued-engineering analysis was incorporated into the Construction Remedial Action Plan. This analysis was used to save over $70MM from the original ROD estimate.


Soil and Groundwater Remediation:

  • Port Arthur, TX – $80M: Conducted an in-situ bioremediation study to treat oily sludge in ponds. The results of the study showed that bioremediation could successfully reduce the VOC levels in the sludge to below the TNRCC non-hazardous Class II waste designation for final disposition.
  • Ponca City, OK – $900M/yr Soils Remediation Program: I2M personnel developed a soils-utilization program for a fuels refinery plant. The program consisted of an innovative field sampling and analytical technique for identifying contaminated soil, hazardous waste soil, and non-contaminated soil. Remediation technologies included bioremediation and vapor phase extraction for organic contaminated soils and stabilization for soil contaminated with metals. The soils program treated the contaminated soil for reuse in the plant. This program was designed to treat in excess of 50,000 tons of soil per year, and save the plant over $2 million per year in annual operating costs.
  • Underground Storage Tanks in Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia: I2M personnel conducted hundreds of Phase I and Phase II environmental site assessments for major oil companies marketing groups. Evaluated marketing stations environmental liability for acquisitions and divestitures. Served as principal investigators for product releases from petroleum and chemical USTs. Conducted hydrogeologic investigations, involving aquifer sampling and testing, plus flow-net analysis, periodic sampling for contaminant plume attenuation analysis. I2M personnel managed petroleum and chemical tank removal, decontamination, and demolition. Conducted in-situ and ex-situ soil remediation using vapor phase extraction, bioremediation, neutralization, and stabilization technologies. Designed and constructed groundwater remediation systems using containment, in-situ bioremediation, and ex-situ carbon filtration technologies.
  • Birmingham, AL – $4MM Aluminum Recovery Process: I2M personnel engineered plant layout design for a heavy media aluminum recovery process. The project included specific design and specifications for water clarification systems, plant process design, and plant equipment.
  • Martinsville, VA – $400MM Solid Waste Landfill Closure: I2M personnel prepared the Final Closure Plan for an Industrial Ash Landfill at a major chemical manufacturing plant. The project included the amendment of previous closure plans, the development of the final bid documents, health and safety plans, a Construction Quality Assurance Plan, and construction of a final cap. Closure certification was prepared and executed.


  • Louviers, Colorado – $5MM PTN (picric acid) plant remediation: I2M personnel provided engineering and construction services to DuPont in the decommissioning of a manufacturing chemical plant for blasting caps. The project included the destruction of over 60,000 explosive charges and bioremediation of explosive residues that lined the bottom of several settlement ponds and basins.
  • Bridgeport, Connecticut – $100M RFI Work Plan: I2M personnel prepared the RFI work plan for the demolition of DuPont/Remington Arm’s Facility. This included an investigation program for discovering, decommissioning, and remediation of all types of military ammunition, which was manufactured from 1900 to 1975 at Remington’s 100-year-old manufacturing facility. The work also included a RCRA Closure Plan for a hazardous waste settling pond.

For additional sites located in the U.S., see other I2M case histories.

Selected Overseas Activities:

  • I2M personnel provided consultation relative to development of brine injection regulations for Peoples Republic of China.
  • I2M personnel provided consultation relative to development of hazardous wastes and chemical handling for Hong Kong.
  • I2M personnel provided input into World Bank and equator principle guidelines for redevelopment of industrial areas located in Africa and Latin America.
  • I2M personnel have provided technical consultation for redevelopment of closed industrial properties for redevelopment as commercial “marina” mall and new port operations, for ports in Hong Kong, Mexico, California, Mississippi, Mobile, Bia de Blanca in Argentina, Chad/Cameroon Oil and Gas project, Niger, United Arab Republic, Egypt, and Houston.

The I2M Principals responsible for the above activities are: Richard C. Bost, P.E., P.G.

Feel free to contact us to discuss your project needs or to arrange a speaking engagement by one of our Associates for a professional training session, a technical conference, society meeting, or for a graduation ceremony or other function where the knowledge and experience of our Associates may be of interest to your group.

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I2M Associates, LLC offers experienced engineers, geologists, hydrogeologists, and other scientists with many years in environmental assessments, including remediation management, mineral exploration and mining, project management, and mergers and acquisitions. Related areas of expertise include forensic and feasibility studies in the environmental and mining industries, and environmental site assessments, due diligence assessments, and impact assessments in addition to brownfield redevelopment and management (as well as grant application assistance) in the U.S, and for state and the U.S. governments, and the legal community around the U.S.

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